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внутренний производитель

внутренний производитель

Industry and agriculture of the UK

In the past English industrial prosperity rested on a few important

products, such as textiles, coal and heavy machinery. Now the UK has a

great variety of industries, for example heavy and light industry,

chemical, aircraft, electrical, automobile and many other industries. The

United Kingdom is considered one of the world\'s major manufacturing

nations. Now high technology industries are more developed than heavy

engineering. Heavy engineering and other traditional industries have

experienced a certain decline.

Certain areas are traditionally noted for various types of industries. For

instance, Newcastle is famous for coal industry, the county of Lancashire

for its textile industry. The Midlands, or the central counties of

England, are famous for the production of machinery, coal, motor cars and

chemicals. In recent times regional industrial distinctions have become

less clear as more and more new factories are built in the different parts

of the country.

Speaking about the cities of the United Kingdom the first mention should

be made of London, the capital of the UK. It is a big port on the River

Thames, a major commercial, industrial centre.

Leeds is a centre of clothing industry producing woolen articles. Glasgow

is a major port on the River Clyde where shipbuilding industry is

developed. Liverpool on the River Mersey is a flour milling and

engineering centre. Birmingham is an iron and steel centre, Manchester is

famous for textiles manufacturing.

Three-quarters of the United Kingdom\'s land is dedicated to agriculture.

About two per cent of the population of the United Kingdom are engaged in

agriculture, but the yields of English farms and pastures are very high.

Wheat, barley, oats and potatoes are the most important crops grown.

Sheep, cattle and pigs are the most numerous types of livestock. Sheep is

a source of both wool for textile industry and mutton for food industry.

Mutton is the best liked English meat.

Vocabulary

+------------------------------------------------------------------------+

| | | промышленность, индустрия |

| industry | | |

| | | отрасли промышленности |

| industries | | |

| | | промышленный |

| industrial | | |

| | | сельское хозяйство |

| agriculture | | сельскохозяйственный |

| | | |

| agricultural | | процветание, преуспевание |

| | | |

| prosperity | | процветающий |

| | | |

| prosperous | | уголь |

| | | |

| coal | | машинное оборудование, |

| | | машины |

| heavy machinery | | |

| | | разнообразие |

| variety | | |

| | | разнообразный |

| various | | |

| | | например |

| for example | | |

| | | химический |

| syn. for instance | | |

| | | химическая промышленность |

| chemical | | |

| | | продукты химической |

| chemical industry | | промышленности |

| | | |

| chemicals | | 1. самолет (ы) |

| | | |

| aircraft | | 2. авиационный |

| | | |

| to consider | | рассматривать |

| | | |

| world | | мир |

| | | |

| in the world | | в мире |

| | | |

| major | | основной, главный |

| | | |

| major product | | основной продукт |

| | | |

| manufacturing | | производство |

| | | |

| to manufacture | | производить |

| | | |

| to develop | | развивать |

| | | |

| developed | | развитый |

| | | |

| development | | развитие |

| | | |

| to experience | | испытывать |

| | | |

| experience | | опыт |

| | | |

| certain | | определенный |

| | | |

| decline | [\'IndqstrI] | снижение |

| | | |

| to decline | [In\'dAstrIql] | снижать(ся) |

| | | |

| area | [xgrIkAlCq] | площадь |

| | | |

| to note | [,xgrI\'kAlCqrql] | замечать, отмечать |

| | | |

| note | [pros\'perItI] | заметка, запись |

| | | |

| to be famous for | [\'prospqrqs] | быть известным чем-либо |

| smth | | |

| | [mq\'SJnqrI] | производство |

| production | | |

| | [vq\'raIqtI] | производить |

| to produce | | |

| | [\'vFqrIqs] | недавний, последний, свежий |

| recent | | |

| | [\'kemIkql] | региональный |

| regional | | |

| | [kqn\'sIdq] | регион |

| region | | |

| | [\'meIGq] | различие, разграничение |

| distinction | | |

| | [,mxnju\'fxkCqrIN] | упоминание |

| mention | | |

| | [,mxnju\'fxkCq] | упоминать |

| to mention | | |

| | [Iks\'pIqrIqns] | в первую очередь следует |

| the first mention | | упомянуть о |

| should be made of | [sWtn] | |

| | | столица |

| capital | [\'FqrIq] | |

| | | река |

| river | [rJsnt] | |

| | | река Темза |

| the river Thames | [dIs\'tInkSn] | |

| | | река Клайд |

| the river Clyde | [temz] | |

| | | река Мёрси |

| the river Mersey | [wHln] | |

| | | швейная промышленность |

| clothing industry | [flauq] | |

| | | шерстяные изделия |

| woolen articles | [,enGI\'nIqrIN] | |

| | | шерсть |

| wool | [\'tekstaIlz] | |

| | | судно |

| ship | [\'kwO:tq] | |

| | | судостроение |

| shipbuilding | [\'dedIkeIt] | |

| | | мука |

| flour | [pq\'sent] | |

| | | мукомольный |

| flour milling | [In\'geIG] | |

| | | машиностроение |

| engineering | [jJldz] | |

| | | тяжелое машиностроение |

| heavy engineering | [\'pRsCq] | |

| | | железо, чугун |

| iron | [wJt] | |

| | | сталь |

| steel | [\'bRlI] | |

| | | текстиль |

| textiles | [outs] | |

| | | текстильное производство |

| textiles | [\'nju:mqrqs] | |

| manufacturing | | четверть |

| | [\'laIvstOk] | |

| quarter | | земля |

| | [sO:s] | |

| land | | посвящать, предназначать |

| | [mAtn] | |

| to dedicate | | быть предназначенным |

| | | чему-либо |

| to be dedicated to | | |

| smth | | предназначаться/отводиться |

| | | сельскому хозяйству |

| to be dedicated to | | |

| agriculture | | процент |

| | | |

| per cent | | один процент |

| | | |

| one per cent | | два процента |

| | | |

| two per cent | | около двух процентов |

| | | |

| about two per cent | | население |

| | | |

| population | | заниматься |

| | | |

| to engage | | быть занятым в чем-либо |

| | | |

| to be engaged in | | сбор плодов, урожай |

| smth | | |

| | | пастбище |

| yields | | |

| | | пшеница |

| pasture | | |

| | | ячмень |

| wheat | | |

| | | овес |

| barley | | |

| | | картофель (растение), |

| oats | | картофелина |

| | | |

| potato | | (мн.ч. картофель) |

| | | |

| pl. potatoes | | урожай, жатва |

| | | |

| crop | | выращивать |

| | | |

| to grow (grew, | | овца/ы |

| grown) | | |

| | | крупный рогатый скот |

| sheep | | |

| | | свинья, поросенок |

| cattle | | |

| | | многочисленный |

| pig | | |

| | | домашний скот |

| numerous | | |

| | | источник |

| livestock | | |

| | | баранина |

| source | | |

| | | 1. пища, питание |

| mutton | | |

| | | 2. продовольственный |

| food | | |

| | | 1. мясо |

| meat | | |

| | | 2. содержание |

| a book full of meat | | |

| | | содержательная книга |

+------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Economy of the USA

The United States of America is a highly developed industrialized country.

Shipbuilding, electronics, automobile industry, aircraft industry, space

research are highly developed in the States.

Each region of the United States has characteristics of its own due to the

differences in climate, landscape and geographical position.

Great Lakes, Atlantic Coast, Pennsylvania, New Jersey are biggest

industrial regions of the country.

The United States has a lot of mineral deposits or resources such as coal,

gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc. The south, especially Texas is rich

in oil. The coalfields of Pennsylvania are rich in coal. There are plenty

of coal mines.

Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska is the richest farming region of America and it

is known as the Corn Belt. The land is fertile and well watered. They grow

mostly corn and wheat there. Much livestock is also raised here.

There is a lot of fruit raising area. For example, California oranges,

grapefruit, lemons, as well as other fruits, wines and vegetables are

shipped all over the States and to other parts of the world. The most

important crops grown in the States are also tobacco, soy-beans, peanuts,

grapes and many others.

There are a lot of large and modern cities, but a great proportion of the

country consists of open land dotted with farmhouses and small towns. The

usual average town, in any part of the United States, has its Main Street

with the same types of stores selling the same products. Many American

residential areas tend to have a similar look. As to big cities their

centres or downtowns look very much alike. Downtown is the cluster of

skyscrapers imitations of New York giants.

New York City is the first biggest city of the States. Its population is

more than eight million people. It is a financial and advertising business

centre. It is also a biggest seaport of the Hudson River. Industry of

consumer goods is also developed here.

Chicago with a population of more than three and a half million is the

second largest city in the USA. It deals in wheat and other grains, cattle

meat processing and manufacturing. Other big cities are Huston, an oil

refining and NASA space research centre, New Orleans, a cotton industry

centre, Los Angeles with Hollywood, Philadelphia, a shipping commercial

centre, Detroit, a world\'s leading motor car producer and many others.

Vocabulary

+------------------------------------------------------------------------+

| | | космос, пространство |

| | | |

| | | исследование |

| space | | |

| | | космические исследования |

| research | | |

| | | вследствие, из-за |

| space research | | |

| | | климат |

| due to | | |

| | | ландшафт |

| climate | | |

| | | берег |

| landscape | | |

| | | Атлантическое побережье |

| coast | | |

| | | запасы минералов, полезных |

| Atlantic coast | | ископаемых |

| | | |

| mineral deposits, | | золото |

| resources | | |

| | | серебро |

| gold | | |

| | | медь |

| silver | | |

| | | свинец |

| copper | | |

| | | цинк |

| lead | | |

| | | богатый |

| zinc | | |

| | | быть богатым чем-либо |

| rich | | |

| | | много |

| to be rich in smth | | |

| | | шахта, рудник |

| plenty of | | |

| | | добывать (руду и т.п.) |

| syn. much, many, a lot | | |

| of | | добывающая промышленность |

| | | |

| mine | | кукуруза |

| | | |

| to mine | | поп-корн |

| | | |

| mining industry | | пояс |

| | | |

| corn | | «Кукурузный пояс» |

| | | «Хлопковый пояс» |

| pop-corn | | «Библейский пояс» |

| | | |

| belt | | плодородный, изобильный |

| | | |

| the Corn Belt | | плодородие, изобилие |

| | [rI\'sq:C] | |

| the Cotton Belt | | снабжать влагой, поливать, |

| | [dju:] | орошать |

| the Bible Belt | | |

| fertile | [\'klaImIt] | вода |

| | | |

| fertility | [dI\'pOzIt] | хорошо орошаемый |

| | | (естественным путем) |

| to water | [led] | |

| | | выращивать |

| water | [\'fq:tail] | |

| | | выращивать домашний скот |

| well watered | [fq(:)\'tIlItI] | |

| | | 1. овощ |

| to raise | [\'xvqrIG] | |

| | | 1. растительный |

| to raise livestock | [\'GaIqnt] | отправлять, отгружать |

| | | усеивать |

| vegetable | [\'xdvqtaIz] | |

| | | быть усеянным... |

| to ship | [qd\'vq:tIsmqnt] | |

| | | средний, среднее число |

| to dot | [kqn\'sju;mq] | |

| | | выводить, составлять |

| to be dotted with... | [\'prqusesIN] | среднее число |

| average | | |

| | [\'prqusqs] | в среднем |

| to average | | |

| | [rI\'faIn] | магазин |

| at an average | | |

| | | иметь тенденцию, склонность |

| store | | |

| | | Они имеют тенденцию быть |

| syn. shop | | похожими друг на друга. |

| | | (Они все больше и больше |

| to tend | | становятся похожими друг на |

| | | друга.) |

| They tend to have a | | |

| similar look. | | деловая часть города |

| | | выглядеть одинаково |

| downtown | | |

| | | скопление, концентрация |

| to look alike | | |

| | | небоскреб |

| cluster | | |

| | | гигант |

| skyscraper | | |

| | | рекламировать |

| giant | | |

| | | реклама |

| to advertise | | |

| | | потребительские товары |

| advertisement = ad | | |

| consumer goods | | иметь дело с чем-либо, |

| | | заниматься (чем-либо) |

| to deal in smth | | |

| | | иметь дело с кем-либо |

| to deal with smb | | переработка |

| processing | | |

| | | переработка мяса |

| meat processing | | перерабатывать |

| | | |

| to process | | процесс |

| | | |

| process | | 1. нефть |

| | | |

| oil | | 2. масло (растительное) |

| | | |

| to refine | | очищать, рафинировать, |

| | | повышать качество |

| oil refining centre | | |

| | | нефтеперерабатывающий центр |

| refinery | | |

| | | очистительный завод |

| refinement | | |

| | | очищение, рафинирование |

| NASA - National | | |

| Aeronautics and Space | | Национальное управление по |

| Administration | | аэронавтике и исследованиям |

| | | космического пространства |

| cotton | | |

| | | 1. хлопок |

| | | |

| | | 2. хлопчатобумажный |

+------------------------------------------------------------------------+


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