30 2 :

|=+1 +2 | | -|

|- -|=+++(-) | |

| |- |=1+2 ( |

|1- - |- | |

| | | |

|2- - | | |

| | | |

| |2) | |

| | | |

|=-+- |=(-)+ |=+++ |

|- |- |=% |

|- |=- |+++ |

| | |- |

| | |=-. |

| | |()=-- |

| |3) |4) |

|=+²++ |=- |=+ |

|²=+ײ, =-, | |- |

|=- | | |

|=+\ |=(-)++++| |

|- |++ |=-( )|

| |- \ | |

|= \ | | |

| |+ = | |

|=- | | |

| | | = |

|= ( |=( |/ |

|/ )100 | ) \ | |

| | )* 100| |

| | | |

| = ( /)100 |=**100 | |

| | |(= 100 |

| | |(=(-)/ |

| | |*100 |

|3: (, ) |

| |=/*100 | : |

|=(ײ\( | |=(-)*2,5 |

| |- , |- |

| |- | %% |

|=(100-)/100*|=*100/(100-)|=- |

| | |- |

|=, = | | |

|Ҳ=-100 |= ( | |

| | | |

|Ҳ= ( )/ | | |

|)*100- | | |

|3: , |

|=-, |- |- |

|=+ | |() |

|= - |=\*100% |=(\(*100% |

|=((), =((;) |- |=(\(*100% |

|=((;) | |+=100% 1,0 |

| |=\*100% | |

| |+=100% 1,0,| |

| |( | |

| : (1 | | |

|(1 |(=(+*( |²=ײ+dt, dK=A, |

|(0 (0 |() |ײ=t+1-K1 |

| |(=(+*( () |²=t+1-(1-d)\Kt |

| |, -,-|d- |

| | , |=-b*, b- |

| |= | |

|=( -((+() |=\ײ*100% | |

|=-% | |=-Ҳ |

|=(-)-*, (| |²=-f() |

| |=-, - | |

|=+( ), | | |

|=+ | | |

|- |-, | |

|=\ | | |

|=1\- |=-b* b- |(( ( , |

| | |̳=(/(²- |

| | | ², ̳=1\, |

| | |̳=1\(1-) |

| | |(=̳*(²=1\*(|

| | |,̳= |

| | |(=* |

| | |(,((²(,( |

| | |(,((²(,( |

| | : | |

| (() |ֳ : - | |

|ֳ : =(\ | % , - |: |

|= ( | , - |=((,) |

|ֳ : | | (: (,( |

|(=(* | | , (, |

| = +(* |: - |( , |

|(=(+(* |, - |const ( |

|)\- | (, |C (, |

| | , | |

| |-), - | : (, |

| | |-const, (, (,|

| | | ( = (() |

| | | : - |

| | | |

| | |(, ), - |

| | | |

| | | , - |

| | |( |

| | | : (, |

| | |(-, |

| | |((- |

| 6: |

|- |-픺 ²=, ²=²(², |

|=²+, =, |=:(²= |

|= |(²-(² |

|(²=, |,-,(-- (, |

|(²= |=²-², -²=, (²- (² |

|(-( | , -, ( ,-(,|

|--( |=²+²,+²=, =², =, =|

|(-( | |

|--( | |




2009 .