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Развитие Демократии и демагогии в Южной Корее

total: 238 km

border countries: North Korea 238 km

Coastline: 2,413 km

Maritime claims:

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: not specified

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

territorial sea: 12 nm; between 3 nm and 12 nm in the Korea Strait

Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m

highest point: Halla-san 1,950 m

Natural resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead, hydropower

Land use:

arable land: 19%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 1%

forests and woodland: 65%

other: 13% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 13,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; low-level

seismic activity common in southwest

Environment—current issues: air pollution in large cities; water pollution

from the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents; driftnet fishing

Environment—international agreements:

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,

Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous

Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship

Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification

|People |

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Population: 46,884,800 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 22% (male 5,504,333; female 4,874,974)

15-64 years: 71% (male 16,949,807; female 16,432,951)

65 years and over: 7% (male 1,192,688; female 1,930,047) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 15.95 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.68 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.13 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.57 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 74.3 years

male: 70.75 years

female: 78.32 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:

noun: Korean(s)

adjective: Korean

Ethnic groups: homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese)

Religions: Christianity 49%, Buddhism 47%, Confucianism 3%, pervasive folk

religion (shamanism), Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way), and other

1%

Languages: Korean, English widely taught in junior high and high school

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 99.3%

female: 96.7% (1995 est.)

|Government |

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Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Korea

conventional short form: South Korea

local long form: Taehan-min'guk

local short form: none

note: the South Koreans generally use the term "Han-guk" to refer to their

country

abbreviation: ROK

Data code: KS

Government type: republic

Capital: Seoul

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 6

special cities* (gwangyoksi, singular and plural); Cheju-do, Cholla-bukto,

Cholla-namdo, Ch'ungch'ong-bukto, Ch'ungch'ong-namdo, Inch'on-gwangyoksi*,

Kangwon-do, Kwangju-gwangyoksi*, Kyonggi-do, Kyongsang-bukto, Kyongsang-

namdo, Pusan-gwangyoksi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*, Taegu-gwangyoksi*, Taejon-

gwangyoksi*

Independence: 15 August 1945, date of liberation from Japanese colonial

rule

National holiday: Liberation Day, 15 August (1945)

Constitution: 25 February 1988

Legal system: combines elements of continental European civil law systems,

Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President KIM Dae-jung (since 25 February 1998)

head of government: Prime Minister KIM Chong-p'il (since 3 March 1998)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime minister's

recommendation

elections: president elected by popular vote for a single five-year term;

election last held 18 December 1997 (next to be held by 18 December 2002);

prime minister appointed by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed

by the president on the prime minister's recommendation

election results: KIM Dae-jung elected president; percent of vote—KIM Dae-

jung (NCNP) 40.3%, YI Hoe-chang (GNP) 38.7%, YI In-che (NPP) 19.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Kukhoe (299 seats;

members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 11 April 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)

election results: percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—NKP 139, NCNP

79, ULD 50, DP 15, independents 16; note—the distribution of seats as of

February 1999 was GNP 137, NCNP 105, ULD 53, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices are appointed by the president

subject to the consent of the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Grand National Party or GNP [CHO Sun,

president]; National Congress for New Politics or NCNP [KIM Dae-jung,

president]; United Liberal Democrats or ULD [PAK Tae-chun, president]

note: subsequent to the legislative election of April 1996 the following

parties disbanded—New Korea Party or NKP and Democratic Party or DP; New

People's Party or NPP merged with the NCNP in August 1998

Political pressure groups and leaders: Korean National Council of Churches;

National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation of Student

Associations; National Federation of Farmers' Associations; National

Council of Labor Unions; Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean

Veterans' Association; Federation of Korean Industries; Korean Traders

Association; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, CP,

EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA

(observer), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,

Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD,

OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU,

WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador YI Hong-ku

chancery: 2450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-5600

FAX: [1] (202) 387-0205

consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago,

Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen W. BOSWORTH

embassy: 82 Sejong-Ro, Chongro-ku, Seoul

mailing address: American Embassy, Unit 15550, APO AP 96205-0001

telephone: [82] (2) 397-4114

FAX: [82] (2) 738-8845

Flag description: white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the

center; there is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book

of Changes) in each corner of the white field

|Economy |

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Economy—overview: As one of the Four Dragons of East Asia, South Korea has

achieved an incredible record of growth. Three decades ago its GDP per

capita was comparable with levels in the poorer countries of Africa and

Asia. Today its GDP per capita is seven times India's, 13 times North

Korea's, and already near the lesser economies of the European Union. This

success through the late 1980s was achieved by a system of close government

business ties, including directed credit, import restrictions, sponsorship

of specific industries, and a strong labor effort. The government promoted

the import of raw materials and technology at the expense of consumer goods

and encouraged savings and investment over consumption. The Asian financial

crisis of 1997-98 exposed certain longstanding weaknesses in South Korea's

development model, including high debt/equity ratios, massive foreign

borrowing, and an undisciplined financial sector. By the end of 1998 it had

recovered financial stability, rebuilding foreign exchange reserves to

record levels by running a current account surplus of $40 billion. As of

December 1998, the first tentative signs of a rebound in the economy

emerged, and most forecasters expect GDP growth to turn positive at least

in the second half of 1999. Seoul has also made a positive start on a

program to get the country's largest business groups to swap subsidiaries

to promote specialization, and the administration has directed many of the

mid-sized conglomerates into debt-workout programs with creditor banks.

Challenges for the future include cutting redundant staff, which reaches

20%-30% at most firms and maintaining the impetus for structural reform.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$584.7 billion (1998 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: -6.8% (1998 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$12,600 (1998 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:

agriculture: 6%

industry: 43%

services: 51% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.5% (1998)

Labor force: 20 million

Labor force—by occupation: services and other 52%, mining and manufacturing

27%, agriculture, fishing, forestry 21% (1991)

Unemployment rate: 7.9% (1998)

Budget:

revenues: $100.4 billion

expenditures: $100.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997

est.)

Industries: electronics, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding,

steel, textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity—production: 194.163 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity—production by source:

fossil fuel: 61.18%

hydro: 2.65%

nuclear: 36.17%

other: 0% (1996)

Electricity—consumption: 194.163 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity—exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity—imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture—products: rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit; cattle,

pigs, chickens, milk, eggs; fish

Exports: $133 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports—commodities: electronic and electrical equipment, machinery, steel,

automobiles, ships; textiles, clothing, footwear; fish

Exports—partners: US 17%, EU 13%, Japan 12% (1995)

Imports: $94 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports—commodities: machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil,

steel, transport equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains

Imports—partners: US 22%, Japan 21%, EU 13% (1995)

Debt—external: $154 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid—recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 South Korean won (W) = 100 chun (theoretical)

Exchange rates: South Korean won (W) per US$1—1,174.00 (January 1999),

1,401.44 (1998), 951.29 (1997), 804.45 (1996), 771.27 (1995), 803.45 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

|Communications |

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Telephones: 16.6 million (1993)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international services

domestic: NA

international: fiber-optic submarine cable to China; satellite earth

stations—3 Intelsat (2 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat

(Pacific Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 79, FM 46, shortwave 0

Radios: 42 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 121 (in addition, there are 850 relay

stations and eight-channel American Forces Korea Network) (1997)

Televisions: 9.3 million (1992 est.)

|Transportation |

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Railways:

total: 6,240 km

standard gauge: 6,240 km 1.435-m gauge (525 km electrified) (1998 est.)

Highways:

total: 63,500 km

paved: 46,800 km (including 1,720 km of expressways)

unpaved: 16,700 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft

Pipelines: petroleum products 455 km; note—additionally, there is a

parallel petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) pipeline being completed

Ports and harbors: Chinhae, Inch'on, Kunsan, Masan, Mokp'o, P'ohang, Pusan,

Tonghae-hang, Ulsan, Yosu

Merchant marine:

total: 442 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,212,089 GRT/8,161,845 DWT

ships by type: bulk 106, cargo 133, chemical tanker 36, combination bulk 5,

container 52, liquefied gas tanker 13, multifunction large-load carrier 1,

oil tanker 56, passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 22, roll-on/roll-off cargo

2, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 9 (1998

est.)

Airports: 103 (1998 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:

total: 68

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 18

1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 21 (1998 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:

total: 35

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 32 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 200 (1998 est.)

|Military |

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Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, National Maritime

Police (Coast Guard)

Military manpower—military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower—availability:

males age 15-49: 13,954,916 (1999 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:

males age 15-49: 8,890,144 (1999 est.)

Military manpower—reaching military age annually:

males: 400,468 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $9.9 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 3.2% (FY98/99)

|Transnational Issues |

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Disputes—international: Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt Rocks

(Takeshima/Tokdo) claimed by Japan

Сегодня ситуация в Корее определяется взаимодействием трех основных сил.

Смесь эта неустойчива, а ставки высоки.

Во-первых, экономическое чудо Южной Кореи вышло из-под контроля. Финансовая

система покатилась вниз, темпы экономического роста неизбежно придется

снизить, а уровень безработицы вырастет. Спасение Кореи снова зависит от

внешних сил, которые могут и подчинить ее себе - глубоко укоренившийся в

каждом корейце страх.

| |

|Что он предпримет? |

Во-вторых, в стране, принимающей сильную власть, появился новый лидер.

Героический и много испытавший оппозиционер Ким Дэ-Чжун избран президентом,

но некоторые корейцы все еще не уверены в том, что он предпримет, учитывая

его популистское прошлое и связи с профсоюзами.

В-третьих, вечно опасный сосед - Северная Корея, чья экономика находится в

руинах, чье население голодает, чьей огромной до неприличия армии прощается

все, злорадствует и так же опасна, как и прежде. Попытается ли этот хищный

сосед использовать ослабление Южной Кореи как шанс для нападения, для

завершения "объединения"? Или, во время взаимных трудностей прибегнет к

какой-либо форме примирения, как в 1991-92 гг., когда стороны достигли

существенных соглашений в процессе воссоединения?

Репутация живучести

Мой личный опыт, начиная с Корейской войны 1952 г., подсказывает мне, что

выносливые и стойкие корейцы справятся и на этот раз. Они объединились и

преодолели первые унизительные поражения от Северной Кореи во время войны,

пережили полное разорение своей страны. С американской помощью Север

потерпел сокрушительное поражение. Только китайцы спасли его. Вооруженные

силы Южной Кореи возродились из пепла и стали мощной, хорошо организованной

и современной машиной, какой мы знаем ее сегодня.

Когда, в октябре 1986 г. я вернулся в Корею в качестве посла США в Китае,

страну сотрясали бои за демократию. Улицы Сеула были полны полицией,

авторитарные военные правители играли в поддельную демократию, а сотни

тысяч демонстрантов на улицах предвещали взрыв народного негодования и

насилия. Но корейцы снова сплотились, чтобы поддержать почти невозможный

переход к политической демократии.

Избранный, но не вступивший в должность, президент предложил программу

демократических перемен, состоящую из восьми пунктов, в том числе амнистии

Ким Даэ-Чжуна, который в то время находился под домашним арестом. Корейцы

написали новую Конституцию, подготовили проект и приняли новый Закон о

выборах, провели первые относительно свободные и демократические выборы

президента и сумели провести на удивление успешные Олимпийские Игры 1988 г.

Южная Корея появилась на мировой сцене в ореоле славы, но лишь после

жестоких испытаний.

Лицом к лицу с экономическим кризисом

Сегодня перед Южной Кореей стоит самая сложная проблема - разрушение

финансовой системы. Те самые человеческие качества людей, построивших

чрезвычайно эффективный производственный сектор, будучи гипертрофированы,

привели к катастрофическим ошибкам, последствия которых приходится

преодолевать Корее сегодня.

Самонадеянность, упрямство и почти фанатическое стремление к результатам

заставили этих людей слишком много занимать, вкладывать средства в отрасли,

где перепроизводство было носило угрожающий характер и подкупать политиков,

чтобы получить дешевые за счет коррупции и личных связей кредиты. Это

привело к возникновению закрытой сети "своих людей", которая сохраняла

власть в руках глав Джебол (деловых конгломератов), избранных политиков и

бюрократов, не допускала открытости и была никому не подотчетна.

Это плоды посеянного в прошлом

Однако корейцам присущи и другие черты, которые сделают проведение

экономической реформы в их стране более сложным, чем в Индонезии или

Таиланде. Корейцы имеют все основания не доверять иностранцам, и это

недоверие у них в крови. Тысячелетиями более сильные соседи атаковали,

оккупировали, насиловали, колонизировали их страну. Когда Корея

сомневалась, иностранные хищники захватывали ее.

Корейцам, конфуцианцам по мировоззрению, как и всякому иерархическому

обществу, присуще недоверие к свободному рынку. Экономическая свобода

должна подчиняться порядку и контролю, насаждаемым сверху. Чувство

самовнушенного стыда у корейцев гораздо сильнее, чем у их соседей.

Корейцы будут бороться за максимум иностранной финансовой помощи при

минимуме иностранного вмешательства в экономику. Это приведет к тяжелым

переговорам, повторениям, а иногда и к балансированию на грани конфликта.

Но корейцы обладают развитым чувством выгоды, и как только эта выгода

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